Exercising its discretion in certain areas without discussions with or the agreement of a union as an employer’s or management’s unqualified authority. The rights to (1) assign and direct workforce, (2) discipline employees for just cause, (3) increase / reduce workforce in support of the firm and based on available money, (4) decide products availability, price, method. Also known as management rights, they are not subject to negotiations and may be expressly stated as such in a collective bargaining agreement.

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