1. Communications. Where an employee is given information on prospects of actions and then given feedback. 2. Decision making. Approach where results are decided upon first and then the method to get them are chosen. 3. Investing. Approach where economic trends are examined to decide which firms will benefit from the trends. 4. Management. Approach where the board decides on results and then passes the plan down through levels of management. 5 Thinking. Cognitive process where sensory data enables a person to understand the world by interpreting sense impressions.