Legal Articles

KYOTO PROTOCOL

Industrialized countries excluding the US agree to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Negotiated in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan.

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KERMIT

Software named after the Muppet frog character in the children’s educational program, Sesame Street. Controls data exchanges between PCs and mainframe computers. It is an asynchronous file-transfer protocol, largely replaced by internet protocols (IP), but was once popular during the electronic bulletin board era. Automatic error detection and correction during transmission over ‘noisy’ telephone lines was its strength. Lack of speed was its weakness. Developed at Columbia University as an open source, non-proprietary and public domain, free software.

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KEY TASK ANALYSIS

Typically employed in managerial or supervisory level employee training. Determining the level of performance required, time taken, quality of outcome, and total job or project quality by the study of a set of operation(s). Also called key results analysis,

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KIDS IN PARENTS’ POCKETS ERODING RETIREMENT SAVINGS (KIPPERS)

Parents usually dip into retirement monies to offset extra bills when an adult child returns home unable to live because the expense is too great.

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KNOOP HARDNESS (KH)

Expressed in kilograms of force as a ratio of applied force. Penetration depth is measured in millimeters. Material hardness test of impact depth, not area. A pointed rhombohedral diamond is a highly polished, elongated pyramidical used to cause the impact.

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KERNEL

Computer operating system nucleus. Manages core operations and hardware resources allocation. Also refer to shell.

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KEY TELEPHONE SYSTEM (KTS)

Alternative to a private branch exchange (PBX) phone system, smaller, cheaper, but less flexible. Allows a caller to directly select outgoing lines, incoming calls, or use intercom and conference facilities via several buttons. A user does not have to dial ‘9’ to access an outgoing line as with PBX, but does not have automatic routing of incoming calls. A KTS is user-installable, handling multiple lines with no surcharge to the telephone company. However, a hunt-group service is not available.

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KILL

Cancelling an investment transaction prior to the system receiving its posting.

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KNOWLEDGE ASSET

A copyright, patent, other documentation that generates income as intellectual capital.

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KAIZEN

Small but continual improvements involving everyone from the chief executive to the lowest level workers achieves higher standards in quality enhancement and waste reduction. Mosaki Imai popularized it in his book ‘Kaizen: The Key To Japan’s competitive Success.’ Japanese term for a gradual approach.

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KERNING

Spatial adjusting between certain characters along a text line. Natural shape and slope improve character appearance. Letter combinations like WA and VA look awkward and slow smooth eye flow along a text line. Kerning smoothes the letter shapes. In italic types, this becomes crucial. Increasing font size as in headlines will show poor kerning. Adobe PageMaker, Adobe Indesign, and Quark’Xpress are well-known and used modern desktop publishing programs. Each allows both automatic and manual kerning. Simultaneous spatial adjustment of many letters along text lines is known as range kerning. Also refer to letter spacing and tracking.

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KEYBOARD

Computer-system external input device for data entry. It could be to a mobile device, a personal computer, or any other electronic machine. This device has keys with alphabetic, numerical, and common symbols used in everyday transcription. Personal computers connect to this device through serial or USB plugs. Also refer to QWERTY keyboard, Dvorak keyboard.

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KILLER BEES

While being overcome in a hostile bidding war, a company receives a saving grace.

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KNOWLEDGE BASE

Concepts, data, objectives, requirements, rules, and specifications as an organized knowledge repository. Typically this is a computer system, less often, an organization. It can be (1) a retrieval either as an expert system or artificial intelligence; (2) a human-based retrieval. As a system, it is software-based relational using data forms, design constructs, couplings, and linkages. As a human, physical documents and textual information is its basis.

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KAIZEN BUDGETING

A budgeting approach that includes product improvement costs. With the objective of reducing actual costs below standard costs, projected costs of improvement are already incorporated in the budget . Also refer to target costing.

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KEY EMPLOYEE

Essential, main employee stakeholder in corporate operations. May be an officer with voting rights able to influence the company. Any employee owning company assets 5% or more of the total and/or receives compensation exceeding a threshold set by the IRS is a key employee per the IRS. Also known as highly compensated employee.

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KEYED ADVERTISEMENT

Print ad coded in an advertisement address to identify the source of the query or order. The words ‘Dept. DN’, for example, may indicate ad placements in a newspaper named ‘Daily News.’ These allow an advertiser to place the same ad in different periodicals and measure the best means of promoting a particular offer from the responses.

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KILOGRAM CALORIE

Another name for kilocalorie (Refer to calorie).

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KNOWLEDGE BASED MANUFACTURING

Artificial intelligence or expert systems retrieval for a knowledge based system of automated production processes.

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KAIZEN COSTING

Reducing product costs even if being produced. A process involving effective waste management, continuous product improvement and raw material price reduction. Cost minimization is a strategy in overall product cost reduction.

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