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KNOT

In seamen’s language, a “knot” Is a division of the log-line serving to meas- ure the rate of the vessel’s motion. The number of knots which run off from the reel in half a minute shows the number of miles the vessel sails in an hour. Hence when a ship goes eight miles an hour she is said to go “eight knots.” Webster.

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KNOW ALL MEN

In conveyancing. A form of public address, of great antiquity, and with which many written instruments, such as bonds, letters of attorney, etc., still commence.

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KNOWINGLY

With knowledge; consciously; intelligently. The use of this word in an indictment is equivalent to an averment that the defendant knew what he was about to do, and, with such knowledge, proceeded to do the act charged. U. S. v. Claypool (D. C.) 14 Fed. 128.

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KNOWINGLY AND WILLFULLY

a term used to apply to a crime that is carried out intentionally and with a full awareness.

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KNOWLEDGE

The difference between “knowledge” and “belief” is nothing more than in the degree of certainty. With regard to things which make not a very deep impression on the memory, it may be called “belief.” “Knowledge” is nothing more than a man’s firm belief. The difference is ordinarily merely in the degree, to be judged of by the court, when addressed to the court; by the jury, when addressed to the KNOWLEDGE 690 KYTH jury. Hatch v. Carpenter, 9 Gray (Mass.) 271. See Utley v. Hill, 155 Mo. 232, 55 S. W. 1091, 49 L. R. A. 323, 78 Am. St. Rep. 509; Ohio Valley Coffin Co. v. Goble, 28 Ind. App. 302. 02 N. E. 1025; Clarke v. Ingram, 107 Ga. 505, 33 S. E. 802. Knowledge may be classified in a legal sense, as positive and imputed.

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KNOWLEDGE ASSET

A copyright, patent, other documentation that generates income as intellectual capital.

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KNOWLEDGE BASE

Concepts, data, objectives, requirements, rules, and specifications as an organized knowledge repository. Typically this is a computer system, less often, an organization. It can be (1) a retrieval either as an expert system or artificial intelligence; (2) a human-based retrieval. As a system, it is software-based relational using data forms, design constructs, couplings, and linkages. As a human, physical documents and textual information is its basis.

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KNOWLEDGE BASED MANUFACTURING

Artificial intelligence or expert systems retrieval for a knowledge based system of automated production processes.

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KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEM

Artificial intelligence / expert system based software techniques. Used to solve process problems. Intended use is to respond to unique queries and expertise transfers, relating one domain of knowledge to another. Exists as a data store / relational database. Data is expert knowledge; retrieval is couplings and linkages; design is to facilitate retrieval.

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KNOWLEDGE CAPITAL

Experience, information, knowledge, learning, and skills of the employees of an organization tallied into expertise, high-capability. Knowledge capital is an essential component of human capital. Knowledge capital builds the longest lasting competitive advantage of all the production factors. Technical information, such as chemical and electronics expertise or actual experience or skills, such as construction and steel expertise are examples of knowledge capital types. Another name for intellectual capital.

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KNOWLEDGE CREATION

Defined by Ikujiro Nonaka, interactions between explicit and tacit knowledge form new ideas. Socialization (tacit to tacit), externalization (tacit to explicit), combination (explicit to explicit), and internalization (explicit to tacit) are the types of interactions defined.

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KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

Building, evaluating, and trading knowledge is the basis of this economy. Labor costs slowly decrease in importance while dwindling concern occurs over scarcity of resources and economies of scale, traditional economic concepts.

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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Building of an organization’s intellectual assets by strategies and processes. Driving to identify, capture, structure, value, leverage, and share, enhancing results and market share. Two critical activities are its basis: (1) retain individual explicit and tacit knowledge (capture and document), and (2) socialize it (organizational disseminated).

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KNOWLEDGE MAP

Atlas of documents, files, databases, recordings of best practices or activities, or web pages as a organization’s internal or external repositories guide and inventory.

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KNOWLEDGE WORK

Specific information content or requirements distinguishing job, process, or task.

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KNOWLEDGE WORKER

Data analysts, product developers, planners, programmers, and researchers capturing data to analyze and manipulate into information as a product or service. US management guru Peter Drucker, born in Austria in 1909 popularized this.

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KNOWLEDGE-BASED PAY

Earnings system that compensates employees skill level proficiency and gained education. The employee incentive is improve skills set and education. Reaching certain goals in education, training and skill development translates into higher employee earnings.

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KNOWN

term used to describe a thing that is recognised, like a well known person, a fact that is understood or a thing that is familiar.

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KNOWN HEIRS

the name given to the people who are recognised with the right to inherit.

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KNOWN-MEN

A title formerly given to the Lollards. Cowell.

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