Incompatibility among a person’s attitudes, behavior, beliefs, and/or knowledge results in a state of psychological tension. Also occurs when a choice has to be made between equally attractive or repulsive alternatives. An example is ‘buyer’s remorse,’ a feeling one experiences consisting of guilt associated with doubts about the reasonableness of a purchase decision after making an expensive purchase. Testimonials, money back guaranties, and after-sales service are ways that marketers try to mitigate buyer’s doubts through supportive information. Contrasts with cognitive consonance.

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