means to that end. Commonwealth v. Andrews, 3 Mass. 129. Qui destruit medium destruit flnem. He wlio destroys the mean destroys the end. 10 Coke, 516; Co. Litt 161a; Shep. Touch. 342. Qui doit inheritor al pere doit” inher- iter al fitz. He who would have been heir to the father shall be heir to the sou. 2 Bl. Comm. 223; Broom, Max. 517. Qui evertit causam, evertit causatum futurum. He who overthrows the cause overthrows Its future effects. 10 Coke, 51. Qui ex damnato coitu nascuntur inter liberos non computentnr. Those who are born of an unlawful intercourse are not reckoned among the children. Co. Litt. 8a; Broom, Max. 519. Qui facit per alium facit per se. He who acts through auother acts himself, [t. e., the acts of an agent are the acts of the prin- cipal.J Broom, Max. 818, et seq.; 1 Bl. Comm. 429; Story, Ag. g 440. Qui habet jurisdictionem absolvendi, habet jurisdictionem ligandi. He who has jurisdiction to loosen, has jurisdiction to bind. 12 Coke, 60. Applied to writs of prohibition aud consultation, as resting on a similar foundation. Id. Qui hseret in litera hseret in cortice. He who considers merely the letter of an instrument goes but skin deep into its meauiug. Co. Litt. 289; Broom, Max. 685. Qui ignorat quantum solvere debeat, non potest improbus videre. He who does not know what he ought to pay, does not want probity in not paying. Dig. 50, 17, 99. Qui in jus dominiumve alterius suc- cedit jure ejus nti debet. He who succeeds to the right or property of another ought to use his right, [t. e., holds it subject to the same rights and liabilities as attached to it in the hands of the assignor.] Dig. 50, 17, 177; Broom, Max. 473, 47S. Qui in utero est pro jam nato habe- tur, quoties de ejus commodo quseritur. He who is in the womb is held as already born, whenever a question arises for his benefit Qui jure suo ntitnr, nemini facit inju- riam. He who uses his legal rights harms no one. Carson v. Western R. Co., 8 Gray (Mass.) 424. See Broom, Max. 379. Qui jussn judicis aliquod fecerit non videtnr dolo malo fecisse, quia parere necesse est. Where a person does an act by command of one exercising judicial authority, the law will not suppose that he acted from any wrongful or improper motive, because it was his bounden duty to obey. 10 Coke, 76; Broom, Max. 93. Qui male agit odit lucem. He who acts badly hates the light. 7 Coke, 66. Qui mandat ipse fecissi videtur. He who commands [a thing to be done],is held to have done it himself. Story, Bailm.