Legal Articles

Z-SPREAD

Way of analyzing an assets swap.

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ZERO RATE

Services and products exempt from value added tax.

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ZZZZ BEST

Company created by Barry Minnow in the 1980’s that appeared to be successful but most of the profits were from crime , fraud or fabricated. Went public in 1986, bankrupt in 1987. Minnow was jailed for 25 years for misappropriation of more than $23 million of company funds.

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ZERO SUM GAME

Decision theory. Where a participant’s gain equals another’s loss. Also known as constant sum game. See negative or positive sum game.

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ZERO UPTICK

Transaction at the same price as one before it but higher than the one before that.

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ZERO-BASIS RISK SWAP (ZEBRA)

Municipal stock is traded for a different financial security.

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ZERO AIR

Ambient air that has been filtered to have less than 0.1 PPM of hydrocarbons.

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ZERO-COUPON BOND

Bond that (1) pays no interest but is sold subpar, (2) interest paying bond stripped of its coupon. Also known as non-interest bearing bond, zero interest bond, zero rated bond.

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ZERO BALANCE ACCOUNT

Account used by a company handling very large endorsements.

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ZERO-PROOF BOOKKEEPING

Used in small businesses and by individuals. Method of bookkeeping with a zero balance at end of the accounting period.

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ZERO BASED BUDGETING (ZBB)

Method of preparing cash flow budgets and operating plans which start from zero at the beginning of each year.

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ZIP CODE

Code established by US Postal service to indicate each location. Has since been made 9 digits allowing more accurate identification of a location. Stands for Zoning Improvement Plan.

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Z SCORE

The probability of bankruptcy. It is based on five financial ratios.

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Z TABLE

an early mortality table which showed the actual mortality experienced by those insured by major insurers between 1925 and 1934.

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ZAIBATSU

A japanese congromerate with one company taking control. It has been banned since the mid 1940s and is replaced by keiretsu.

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ZAITECH

The final speculation of a japanese company to boost nonoperating income.

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ZERO COST COLLAR

A spread with the long position in cap or call and the short on the floor or put. This also occurs vice versa. Refer to collar.

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ZERO COUPON BOND

A discounted bond that is traded and pays no coupon interest during its life. The difference between par value and discount value generates profit.

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ZERO COUPON CONVERTIBLE BOND

A convertible bond that is discounted and exchanged into stock. While it is a bond it acquires interest.

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ZERO COUPON INFLATION SWAP

A swap that exchanges floating for fixed rates at maturation. There are no intervening payments during the transaction. They are long term and last 10 or more years. Refer to annual inflation swap and inflation swap.

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