This term may denote any court subordinate to the chief ap- pellate tribunal in the particular judicial system; but it is commonly used as the designa- tion of a court of special, limited, or statutory jurisdiction, whose record must show the existence and attaching of jurisdiction in any given case, in order to give presumptive validity to its judgment. See Ex parte Cuddy, 131 U. S. 280, 9 Sup. Ct. 703, 33 L. Ed. 154; Kempe v. Kennedy, 5 Cranch, 185, 3 L. Ed. 70; Grignon v. Astor, 2 How. 341, 11 L. Ed. 283 ; Swift v. Wayne Circuit Judges, 64 Mich. 479, 31 N. W. 434; Kirkwood v. Washington County, 32 Or. 568, 52 Pac. 568. The Eugiish courts of judicature are classed generally under two heads,
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