At an early day in Pennsylvania, surveyors often made drafts on paper of pretended surveys of public lands, and returned tliem to the land office as duly surveyed, instead of going on the ground and establishing lines and marking corners; and these false and fraudulent pretenses of surveys never actually made were called “chamber surveys.” Schraeder Min. & Mfg. Co. v. Packer, 129 U. S. 688, 9 Sup. St. 3So, 32 L. Ed. 760.