Joining, leagued with, cleaving to; as, “adhering to the enemies of the United States.” Rebels, being citizens, are not “enemies,” within the meaning of the constitution; hence a conviction for treason, in promoting a rebellion, cannot be sustained under that branch of the constitutional definition which speaks of “adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort.” United States v. Greathouse, 2 Abb. (U. S.) 364, Fed. Cas. No. 15.254.