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MACHINATION

Contriving a plot or conspiracy. The act of planning or contriving a scheme for executing some purpose, particularly an evil purpose; an artful design formed with deliberation.

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MACHINE

In patent law. Any contrivance used to regulate or augment force or motion; more properly, a complex structure, cousisting of a combination, or peculiar modification, of the mechanical powers.The term "machine," in patent law, includes every mechanical device, or combination of mechanical powers and devices, to perform some function and produce a certain effect or result. But where the result or effect is produced by chemical action, by the operation or application of some element or power of nature, or of one substance to another, such modes, methods, or operations are called "processes." A new process is usually the result of discovery; a machine, of invention. Corning v. Burden, 15 How. 252. 267, 14 L. Ed. 683. And see Pittsburgh Reduction Co. v. Cowles Electric Co. (C. C.) 55 Fed. 316 ; Westinghouse v. Boyden Power Brake Co.. 170 U. S. 537, 18 Sup. Ct. 707, 42 L. Ed. 1136; Burr v. Durvee, 1 Wall. 570, 17 L. Ed. 650: Stearns v. Russell, 85 Fed. 225, 29 C. C. A. 121; Wintermute v. Redington, 30 Fed. Cas. 370.

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MACHINE BUREAUCRACY

Typical in large, established organizations that have formalization and specialization at a high degree. Top level making decisions, lower levels mechanically carrying then out is this type of management structure.

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MACHINE CODE

Machine language as a programming code, either written by man or compiled, to be executed directly by a machine, the computer, with no further conversion or translation. Also known as an executable. Nearly all commercially-sold shrink-wrapped software is an executable, in machine code. Any defect or bug necessitates a code change, typically back at the software owner's shop.

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MACHINE CONTROLLED TIME

No intervention by an operator is typical of total machine control of the machine's work cycle segment.

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MACHINE ELEMENT

Machine controlled time's measurable subdivision.

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MACHINE HOUR

Measured as one machine working for one hour. Not a labor hour. Used in mechanized production to apply overhead costs to work-in-process inventory. Necessary for cost accounting,

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MACHINE INSTRUCTION

A program's operation commands. Usually a compiled machine-native code. Also known as machine code. A computer, robot, or computer-driven machine recognizes these and executes them.

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MACHINE LANGUAGE

Programmed language directly understood and executed by a machine, typically a computer. Requires no conversion or translation. English-like languages, known also as high level languages, are industry-renown: Basic, C, Java, and the like. These are coded as programs, then converted into a machine language, known as a low level language, by an assembler, compiler, or interpreter. It is different for each type of CPU, often having unique operation sets. These are in native binary language, comprised of only two characters: 0 and 1. It is difficult to read, less likely understood by humans.

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MACHINE LEARNING

Using repetition and experience as how humans seem to learn. Using software whose operations mimic these methods, employing artificial intelligence techniques to enhance the ability of a machine to improve its own performance.

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MACHINE READABLE

Data or instructions readable through a computer's electronic device. This input is ready for interpretation and manipulation. Bar codes, magnetic ink, or disk are sources of this data or instructions. Laser scanners, magnetic stripe readers, or disk drives are the reading devices.

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MACHINE SCANNING

An optical device reads printed materials and transfer into digital format as electronic data input. Optical character recognition (OCR) technology is used.

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MACHINE TOOL

Non-portable, power-driven industrial device. Machine tools are 'machines that make machines.' Abrading, cutting, drilling, forming, grinding, nibbling, or shaping of a piece of metal or other material are examples of tool operations.

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MACHINERY

A more comprehensive term than "machine;" Including the appur- tenances necessary to the working of a machine. Seavey v. Central Mut. F. Ins. Co., Ill Mass. 540.

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MACHINING

Abrading, cutting, drilling, forming, grinding, and/or shaping of a piece of metal or other material are operations performed by lathes, power saws, and presses, which are machine tools.

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MACHOLDM

In old English law. A barn or granary open at the top; a rick or stack of corn. Spelman.

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MACRO FORECAST

Broad, all-encompassing economic forecast covering employment and gross domestic product (GDP).

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MACRO HEDGE

An offset designed to use futures contracts to eliminate, reduce, or otherwise mitigate an entire entity's portfolio-based economic risk. Also refer to micro hedge.

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MACRO MARKETING

National, societal-based perspective-study of broad marketing activities, institutions, and processes. Starting at an economy's aggregate goods and services flow, it determines social benefits as resource consumption and environmental effects.

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MACRO RATING

Superseded by CAMELS rating since 1994. Older evaluation-soundness measure of a bank. Management, asset quality, capital adequacy, risk-management, and operating results are evaluated.

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