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I

The initial letter of the word "Insti- tuta," used by some civilians in citing theInstitutes of Justinian. Tayl. Civil Law, 24.

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I E

An abbreviation for "id est," that is; that is to say.

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I NEGOTIABILITY

In mercantile law (Transferable quality. That quality of bills of exchange and promissory notes which renders them transferable from one person to another, and from possessing which they are emphatically termed "negotiable paper." 3 Kent, Comm. 74, 77, 89, et seq. See Story, Bills,

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I O U

A memorandum of debt, consisting of these letters, ("I owe you,") a sum ofmoney, and the debtor's signature, is termed an "I O U." Kinney v. Flynn, 2 R. I. 329.

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I, R

An abbreviation for "Law Reports."

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IBERNAGIUM

In old English law. The season for sowing winter corn. Also spelled"hibernagium" and "hybernagium."Ibi temper debet fieri triatio ubi jura- tores meliorem possunt habere notitiam.7 Coke, 16. A trial should always be had where the jurors can be the best informed.

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IBID

a Latin word that means the same.

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IBIDEM

Lat. In the same place; in the same book ; on the same page, etc. Abbreviatedto "ibid." or "ib."

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ICENI

The ancient name for the people of Sutfolk, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, andHuntingdonshire, in England.

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ICONA

An image, figure, or representation of a thing. Du Cange.

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ICTUS

An abbreviation for "juriscon- sultus," one learned in the law; a jurisconsult

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ID EST

Lat That is. Commonly abbreviated "i. e."Id perfectum est quod ez omnibus suia partibus constat. That is perfect whichconsists of all its parts. 9 Coke, 9.Id possumus quod de jure possumus.Lane, 110. We may do only that which by law we are allowed to do.Id quod est magis remotum, non trahit ad se quod est magis junctum, sed e contrarioin omni casn. That which is more remote does not draw to itself that which ianearer, but the contrary In every case. Co. Litt. 104.Id quod nostrum est sine facto nostro ad alium transferri non potest. Thatwhich is ours cannot be transferred to another without our act. Dig. 50, 17, 11.Id solum nostrnm quod debitis deductis nostrum est. That only is ours which remainsto us after deduction of debts. Tray. Lat. Max. 227.

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IDEM

Lat The same. According to Lord Coke, "idem" has two significations, sc.,idem syllabis seu verbis, (the same in syllables or words,) and idem re et scnsu, (thesame in substance and in sense.) 10 Coke, 124a.In old practice. The said, or aforesaid; said, aforesaid. Distinguished from "prcedictws"in old entries, though having the same general signification. Townsh. PI. 15, 16.Idem agens et patiens esse non potest.Jenk. Cent. 40. The same person cannot be both agent and patient; i. e., the doer andperson to whom the thing is done.Idem est facere, et non prohibere cum possis; et qui non prohibit, cum prohiberepossit, in culpa est, (aut jubct.)3 Inst. 158. To commit, and not to prohibit when in your power, is the same thing; andhe who does not prohibit when he can prohibit is in fault, or does the same as orderingit to be done.Idem est nihil dicere, et insufficienter dicere. It is the same thing to say nothing,and to say a thing insufficiently. 2 Inst. 178. To say a thing in an insufficient manner isthe same as not to say it at all. Applied to the plea of a prisoner. Id.Idem est non esse, et non apparere.It is the same thing not to be as not to appear. Jenk. Cent. 207. Not to appear is thesame thing as not to be. Broom, Max. 165.Idem est non probari et non esse; non deficit jus, sed probatio. What is not provedand what does not exist are the same; It Is not a defect of the law, but of proof.Idem est scire ant scire debere aut potuisse. To be bound to know or to be able toknow is the same as to know.

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IDEM

a Latin word that means the same.

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IDEM PER IDEM

The same for the same. An illustration of a kind that really adds no additional element to the consideration of the question.Idem semper antecedent! proximo refertur. Co. Litt. G85. “The same” is always referred to its next antecedent

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IDEM SONANS

Sounding the same or alike; having the same sound. A term applied to names which are substantially the same, though slightly varied in the spelling, as”Lawrence” and “Lawronce,” and the like. 1 Cromp. & M. 800; 3 Chit Gen. Pr. 171.Two names are said to be “idem sonantes” if the attentive ear finds difficulty in distinguishing them when pronounced, or if common and long-continued usage has by corruption or abbreviation made them identical in pronunciation. State v. Griffie, 118 Mo. 188, 23 S. W. 878. The rule of “idem sonans” is that absolute accuracy in spelling names is not required in a legal document or proceedings either civil or criminal; that if the name, as spelled in the document, though different from the correct spelling thereof, conveys to the ear, when pronounced according to the commonly accepted methods, a sound practically identical with the correct name as commonly pronounced,the name thus given is a sufficient identification of the individual referred to, and no advantage can be taken of the clerical error. Huhner v. Iteickhoff, 103 Iowa, 308, 72N. W. 540, 04 Am. St. Rep. 191. But the doctrine of “idem sonans” has been much enlarged by modern decisions, to conform to the growing rule that a variance, to be material, must be such as has misled the opposite party to his prejudice. State v. White,34 S. C. 59, 12 S. E. 001, 27 Am. St. Rep. 783.

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IDEM SONANS

a Latin phrase for sounding alike.

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IDENTICAL

the word used to describe a thing that is the same as something else in all respects.

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IDENTIFICATION

Proof of identity; the proving that a person, subject, or article before the court is the very same that he or it is alleged, charged, or reputed to be; as where a witness recognizes the prisoner at the bar as the same person whom he saw committing the crime; or where handwriting, stolen goods, counterfeit coin, etc., are recognized as the same which once passed under the observation of the person identifying them.Identitas vera colligitur ex multitu- dine signorum. True identity is collected from a multitude of signs. Bac. Max.

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IDENTIFICATION

the term used to prove that a person is who they say they re.

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